Throughout Crimean War, health centers of the day werent so much centers of healing or recovery as they were the places where hurt combatants went to pass away slightly more gradually. Turkeys Scutari medical facility was one such infamous example. Converted by the British Empire from army barracks, Scutari lacked every possible facility, from standard sanitation to adequate ventilation, this “medical facility” served as a powerful incubator for myriad contagious diseases– that is up until Florence Nightingale and her group of volunteer nurses showed up in 1854..
Maladies of Empire by Jim Downs explores how many elements of contemporary medication are born upon the backs of mankinds most abhorrent impulses, though in the excerpt below, Downs illustrates how one females unyielding perseverance and fastidious record keeping assisted launch the field of preventative medicine.
Excerpted from MALADIES OF EMPIRE: HOW COLONIALISM, SLAVERY, AND WAR TRANSFORMED MEDICINE by JIM DOWNS, published by The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Copyright © 2021 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. Used by permission. All rights scheduled.
While in Scutari, Nightingale developed a system of record keeping that tracked a variety of aspects at the Barrack Hospital and the close-by General Hospital. She remembered on everything from tidiness to the amount of products to diet to the positioning of latrines and graveyards.
She took cautious note of the size of the wards, the condition of the roofing, and the quality, size, and positioning of the windows. She priced quote the report of the hygienic commission, which remarked on the “malfunctioning state of the ventilation” in the Barrack Hospital. As an adherent of the miasma theory, she thought that diseases were spread through the air and advocated for ventilation to launch the “nasty air” from health centers.
In addition to inadequate ventilation, Nightingale pointed to poor drainage and terribly designed drains and plumbing. In her testament to the royal commission, Nightingale reported on the dirty conditions she discovered in the Barrack Hospital when she got here. The drinking water was unclean; when she saw used medical facility uniforms in the water tank.
In the conclusion to her report on the health of the British Army, she discussed, “We have far more info on the hygienic history of the Crimean campaign than we have upon any other, however because it is a total test (history does not afford its equal) of an army, after stopping working to the most affordable ebb of illness and disaster from neglects dedicated, increasing once again to the greatest state of health and effectiveness from remedies applied.
” It is the whole experiment on a gigantic scale.” She explained that throughout the very first seven months of the Crimean campaign, death surpassed that of the plague of 1665 in addition to that of recent cholera upsurges. However throughout the last 6 months of the war, after hygienic reforms had actually been made, “we had … a death among our ill little more than that amongst our healthy Guards in your home.”.
Nightingale was vital of the armys category system for illness. At the bottom of a chart, she notes, “Bronchitis and influenza have no place in the Army classification. The chronic catarrh of the Army Returns is believed to be really phthisis, in the fantastic bulk of cases; intense catarrh comprehends both epidemic catarrh, or influenza and bronchitis.”.
Nightingale presented data utilizing charts, diagrams, and tables, which were just starting to appear in research study reports, to make it much easier for readers to envision the contrast she was making. She developed a new kind of graphic, called a “increased chart,” also understood as a coxcomb chart or polar location diagram, to present death data from the Crimean War. Each chart, which is set out like a pie, shows information from one year, with the slices representing months. Each piece is divided into colored segments whose location is proportional to the variety of deaths.
One section is for deaths from wounds, a second for “preventable or mitigable zymotic diseases,” and a 3rd for all other causes. A quick glimpse at the charts of deaths from April 1854 to March 1855 and April 1855 to March 1856 suffices to show that numerous more deaths were triggered by illness than by combat, which overall death reduced in the second year.
To even more make noticeable the dangers of unsanitary medical facilities, Nightingale gathered mortality information for nurses, nuns, and matrons operating in fifteen London health centers who died of the “zymotic illness” of fever and cholera. She provided tables, which she keeps in mind William Farr put together for her, revealing that the death rate of the nursing staff was much higher than that of the female population in London; in addition, ladies working in health centers were most likely to pass away of zymotic diseases than were other females. She utilized these figures to argue for the “extremely terrific significance” of hygiene in healthcare facilities. “The loss of a well-trained nurse by preventible [sic] disease,” she composed, “is a greater loss than is that of an excellent soldier from the same cause. Cash can not change either, however an excellent nurse is more difficult to find than an excellent soldier.”.
In her book Notes on Hospitals, she retold the story of the British detainees of war who passed away in a congested jail cell in India in 1756: “Shut up 150 individuals in a Black hole of Calcutta, and in twenty-four hours an infection is produced so intense that it will, in that time, have actually ruined nearly the whole of the prisoners.” Nightingales referral to the case is proof for its status as the prototypical illustration of the need for ventilation. And the truth that it happened in India shows how British medical authorities used details from around the empire.
As an outcome of her deal with great deals of clients in the Crimean War, Nightingale framed her analysis like an epidemiologist, in terms of populations. She concentrated on how disease spread within a group. She dedicated her energies not to altering bedpans or dressing injuries however to studying the structure of health centers, examining data, and finding out how to increase ventilation.
The war offered her the chance to compare mortality rates in varied settings: congested health centers, shabby tents, and wooden huts. By releasing her observations, her insights, and standards for hospitals to follow, she hoped to offer a set of rules and guidelines for doctors to follow to prevent the spread of illness. While efforts to ensure correct health as a method to protect against illness can be traced to Mesopotamian civilization and Sanskrit writings from 2000 BCE, Nightingales warnings, in specific, and hygienic reform, more typically, sparked an important turning point in the middle of the nineteenth century that offered increase to preventive medicine.
As an adherent of the miasma theory, she believed that illness were spread through the air and advocated for ventilation to launch the “foul air” from hospitals.
In her testimony to the royal commission, Nightingale reported on the filthy conditions she found in the Barrack Hospital when she got here. To further make visible the risks of unhygienic medical facilities, Nightingale gathered death information for matrons, nurses, and nuns working in fifteen London health centers who passed away of the “zymotic diseases” of fever and cholera. She presented tables, which she notes William Farr compiled for her, showing that the death rate of the nursing staff was much higher than that of the female population in London; in addition, ladies working in medical facilities were more likely to die of zymotic diseases than were other females. By releasing her observations, her insights, and standards for medical facilities to follow, she hoped to supply a set of rules and guidelines for doctors to follow to avoid the spread of disease.